Saturday, April 21, 2012

acacia (Antibacterial/Antioxidant/ Anti-Termite)

Mesocarp of the fruit is sweetish, sometimes eaten by children.Folkloric 
· In the Philippines, a decoction of the inner bark or fresh cambium and leaves is used to treat diarrhea.
· Acute bacillary dysentery, enteritis, diarrhea: use 15 to 30 gms dried material in decoction.
· Also for colds, sore throat, headache.
· A decoction of the inner bark or fresh cambium and leaves is used to treat diarrhea.
· Anaphylactic dermatitis, eczema, skin pruritus: use decoction of fresh material and apply as external wash.
· Latex used as gum arabic for gluing.
· In Venezuela, rain tree is a traditional remedy for colds, diarrhea, headache, intestinal ailments and stomach ache.
· Root decoction used in hot baths for stomach cancer.
· In the West Indies, the leaf infusion is used as a laxative and seeds chewed for sore throat.
· The alcoholic extract of leaves used for tuberculosis.
· In Columbia, the fruit decoction is used as a sedative.
- Wood: Valued for its shade. Popularly used in carving, making tables, wood basins and bowls. Hats are made from the shavings of the wood.
Fodder: Seasonally copious pods with sweet pulp that can be grounded and converted to fodder and alcohol as an energy source. It is also an important honey plant like most mimosaceous trees

• Studies have suggested antimycobacterial antimicrobial activity in the crude extracts of acacia. 
• Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Samanea saman: A study of the aqueous plant extract on three organisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) showed inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed tannins, flavanoids, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids. The study validates the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
 Antibacterial: A methanol extract from leaves showed a highly significant antibacterial activity in vitro for Xanthomonas pathovars and for human pathogenic bacteria.
 Larvicidal: Of 112 medicinal plant species collected in Thailand, Samanea saman (stem bark) was one of 14 plants that exhibited high toxicity to the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti in preliminary screening.
 Antioxidant: Several extracts of Samanea saman showed the highest antioxidant potential in both DPPH and reducing power assay.
 Anti-Termite: Study of ethanolic extracts of seeds and bark of Acacia collected from the Laurel Farm in Lipa city yielded saponins, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents - glycosides, carbohydrates. Results showed termite killing activity comparable to solignum.

DescriptionAcacia is a large umbraculiform tree growing to a height of 20 to 25 meters. Bark is rough and furrowed. Branches are widespread. Leaves are evenly bipinnate and hairy underneath. Pinnae are 8 to 12 and 15 centimeters long or less. Leaflets are 12 to 16 in the upper pinnae, 6 to 10 in the lower ones, decreasing in size downward, hairy beneath, with the mid-nerve diagonal, and oblong-rhomboid, 1.5 to 4 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, borne in dense, peduncled, axillary, solitary, fascicled heads. Fruits are pods, straight, somewhat fleshy, indehiscent, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 2 centimeters wide, with a pulpy sweet mesocarp.

abukado (Anticonvulsant,Hypoglycemic,Antiobesity / Hypolipidemic ...etc)


Edibility / Nutritional
• Fruit eaten with a dressing as a salad.
• Makes an excellent ice cream and dessert.
• A good source of vitamins A, some B, C and E, potassium (higher than bananas) and fiber ; fair source of iron; low in calcium. A fruit with high-energy producing value, each edible pound allegedly provides an average of 1,000 calories.
• High in fat, about 25-35 gms on average. however, about 65% of it is health-promoting monosaturated fat, particularly oleic acid.
- Fat content increases with maturity of the fruit.
- Protein content, which averages 2%, is higher than any other fresh fruit.
• The pulp is thought to promote menstruation.
• The pulp is used to hasten the suppuration of wounds.
• Ointment from pulverized seeds sometimes employed as rubefacient.
• Decoction of pulverized seeds used as gargles for toothaches; also, a piece of the seed placed in the cavity of the tooth to relieve toothaches.
• The leaves and bark promote menstruation; the tea has been used to expel worms.
• Used for diarrhea and dysentery.
• Rheumatism and neuralgia: Pulverize seeds or bark, mix with oil and apply on affected area as
• Beverage: Take decoction of leaves as tea.
• Pulp is applied to shallow cuts, prevents infection.
• Flesh of ripe fruit is soothing to sunburned skin.
• In different parts of the world, has been recommended for anemia, exhaustion, high cholesterol, hypertension, gastritis and duodenal ulcers. The leaves have been reported effective as antitussive, antidiabetic, antiarthritic and antiinflammatory.
• In Mexico, rind of the fruit used as anthelmintic. In the form of a liniment, used in intercostal neuralgia.
• Ink: Juice from seeds yields a milky juice which turns red on exposure; used to make permanent ink for fabric lettering.

• Anticonvulsant:
 Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice: In African traditional medicine, Persiana americana has been used in various human ailments including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. A study showed that avocado leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces anticonvulsant effect by the enhancement of GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain.
• Hypoglycemic:
 Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Persea americana: A Nigerian study revealed that the leaf extract contained various pharmacologically active compounds such as saponins, tannins, phlobatannins, flavanoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides. Although the results were incomparable to the reference drug (chlorpropamide), it confirms the ethnomedical use of the plant for diabetes management. More studies are needed to identify the hypoglycemic principles and its mechanism of action.
 Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic:
 Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Persea americana Leaf Extracts: A effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of Persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHOL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHOL) in rats was investigated. Results suggested lowering effects on glucose and lipid metabolism influences with lowering of Total and LDL cholesterols, an effect of HDL-chol and a potential protective mechanism against atherosclerosis. 
 Antiobesity / Hypolipidemic: 
Effects of Persea Americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver lipids in rats fed hyperlipidimic diet: The study results hypothesize that P. americana leaf extract increases catabolism of lipids accumulated in adipose tissue causing a decrease in mean body weight gain and raises the question if higher concentrations of the leaf extract would reduce liver levels in obesity and fatty liver conditions.
 Hypotensive: Leaf constituents of Persea americana given intravenously induced a marked fall in mean arterial blood pressure lasting 2-3 mins. The short duration was assumed due to rapid metabolism.
 Toxicity / Persin: Study of avocado leaves isolated an active principle, persin. Previously shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms. At high doses, persin can induce mammary gland necrosis and myocardial fiber necrosis, the mechanism for which still remain to be resolved.
 Cytotoxic/ Antitumor / Pesticidal: (1) Study of unripe avocado fruit isolated three major bioactive constutuents which showed activity agaiinst six human tumor cell lines with selectivity for human prostate adenocarcinoma, with one compound being as potent as adriamycin. also, one compound was shown to be more effective than rotenone, a natural botanical insectiside, against yellow fever mosquito larva.
 Toxicity / Larvicidal / Antifungal: Study of extracts of avocado seeds showed toxicity towards Artemia salina, activity against Aedes aegypti. Extracts were also active against all yeast strains, Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermis.
 Vasorelaxant: Study of aqueous leaves extract on isolated rat aorta produced significant vasorelaxation, an effect attributed to the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors and/or release of prostanoids. Extract also reduced vasocontstriction probably through inhibition of Ca influx through calcium channels.
 Antimicrobial / Antimycobacterial: Study demonstrated antimycobacterial activity and suggests a potential source for antituberculosis drugs. 

 Persealide / Cytotoxicity: Study of ETOH extract isolated 'persealide' which showed moderate cytotoxicity against three solid tumor cell lines: human lung carcinoma, human breast carcinoma and human colon adenocarcinoma.
 Anti-Viral : Study showed infusion of P. americana leaves strongly inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1, Adenovirus type 3 and Aujeszky's disease virus.
 Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies: Acute toxicity study showed a relatively low LD50 for the seed extract. Treatment for 14 days decreased food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, Hb and hepatic cholesterol levels. 
 Hypoglycemic / Pancreatic Protective: Study showed restorative effect of the ethanolic extract on pancreatic islet cells. Results suggest a potential for the management of diabetes.
 Immunomodulating / Anti-Adhesion Property: Study showed that P americana has the potential to interefere with the adhesion of all the oral bacteria in host epithelial surfaces. Its significant inhibition property suggests that like cranberry juice, avocado juice can also be consumed to avoid urinary tract infections with E coli.
 Hypolipemic Effcts: (1) Study showed treatment with various doses of a methanolic extract of Persea americana seeds caused a significant reduction in the levels of TC, TG, LDLC, and VLDLC while the levels of HDLC increased significantly. (2) 
 Antioxidant / Leaves Phytoconstituents: Study of leaves isolated isorhamnetin, luteolin, rutin, quercetin and apigenin. On free radical scavenging testing using the DPPH and H2O2 assays, quercetin showed the highest scavening activity. 

Abkel (for intestinal and stomach pains)

Uses - Curanderos use the petroleum nut as a universal medicine.
- Infusion of the fruit is used as a remedy for intestinal and stomach pains.
- The oleoresin is used as a cure for leprosy and other skin diseases; also, as a relief for muscular pains and skin diseases.
- Nut decoction used for colds.
- Crushed nuts, mixed with coconut oil, used as relief for mayalgia.
- Decoction of leaves, taken orally, used for cough.
- Sap used to treat tinea flava.
- Petroleum gas extracted from the fruit is used for stomachache and cicatrizant.

DescriptionAbkel is an epiphyte or pseudoepiphyte. Leaves crowded toward the ends of the branchlets, leathery,smooth, oblanceolate, averaging about 15 centimeters long and 4 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends. Flowers are fragrant, short-pedicelled, smooth, and borne in clusters on the stems. Calyx is thin and cupular. Petals are oblong. Fruit is yellow, ellipsoid, 3 to 3.5 centimeters long, and dehiscent at the apex. Seeds are shiny and black.

Abanico (Antiproliferative / Anticancer/Antifungal )etc


• Antiproliferative / Anticancer: Phenolic constituents of rhizomes of the Thai medicinal plant with proliferative activity for two breast cancer lines – Three new compounds were identified– belalloside A, belalloside B and belamphenone along with other compounds resveratrol, iriflophenone, irisflorentine, tectoridin, among the 13 others. Results showed two isolates to have proliferation stimulatory activity against human breast cancer cell lines..
Used for purifying the blood, for liver and pulmonary complaints.
In Malaya, used as a remedy for gonorrhea.
In Malabar, used as alexipharmic.
In Cochin-China (Vietnam), roots used for aperient and resolvent properties.
In traditional Chinese medicine, used for pharyngitis, tonsillitis, cough, wheezing, bronchitis and mumps.

• Antifungal: A study on the antifungal activity of Belamcanda chinensis isolated a compound identical to tectorigenin (5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)-6-methoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one). This compound showed marked antifungal activity against dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton.
• Phytoestrogens / Anticancer: Study demonstrated a role for tectorigenin and irigenin in regulating the number of prostate cancer cells by inhibition of proliferation through cell cycle regulation.
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidative: Study of tectorigenin and tectoridin isolated from BC rhizomes was shown to have antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities in CCl4-intoxicated rats. 
• Aldose Reductase Inhibition / Tectoridin / Antidiabetic: Aldose reductase is the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, and plays an important role in diabetic complications. Study isolated 12 phenolic compounds from the rhizomes of B. chinensis, with tectoridin and tectorigenin exhibiting the highest aldose reductase inhibitory potency. Administered in STZ-induced diabetic rats, it showed significant inhibition of sorbitol accumulation in the lens, RBC and sciatic nerves. 
• Irigenin / Anti-Inflammatory: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of six flavanoids isolated from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis. Irigenin exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PGE2) production.
• Tectorigenin / Prostate Cancer: Study of showed who tectorigenin and other compounds extracted from B. chinensis can significantly rectify the aberrant expression of genes involved in prostate cancer. Irigenin from the rhizomes presents as a leading compound for anti-inflammation.
• Isoflavonoids / Antioxidant / Antimutagenic: Isoflavonoid fractions from a methanolic extract of BC rhizomes inhibited chemically induced mutations in S typhimurium TA98 and TA100 and also showed capability to scavenge free radicals. Results suggest additional value of the plant as a phytoestrogenic and chemopreventive agent.

Rhizomes used as expectorant.

abang-abang (Anti-Hypertensive)

• Anti-Hypertensive: In a study of the potential antihypertensive activity of Brazilian plants, Leea rubra was one of five plants (C brasiliense, C fruticosum, P roebelinii and T catappa) that showed significant angiotensive-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.

Decoction of roots, branches and leaves used for wound healing.
In Thailand, root used for diarrhea and hallucination. 

In southern Western Ghats, leaf juice of the plant is mixed with coconut milk, given three times daily for treatment of dysentery with blood discharge.

Abanico is an erect and tufted perennial herb with a thick creeping rootstock, growing to a height of 0.5 to 1.5 meters. Leaves are 2-ranked, narrow lanceolate, sword-shaped, 40 to 60 cm long, 2.5 to 4 cm wide, and overlapping at the base. Inflorescence is dichotomously branched, terminal and erect. Spathes are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, about 1 cm long. Flowers are numerous and pedicelled, opening 1 or 2 at a time, 4 to 6 cm across. Perianth-tube is very short, and the segments narrowly elliptic, spreading, yellowish outside, and reddish-yellow inside with reddish spots. Capsules are obovoid, membraneous and loculicidal. Seeds are nearly spherical in shape, with lax and shining testa.

Philippine Traditional and Alternative Medicine

Philippine Traditional and Alternative Medicine

Traditional medicine has been practiced since ancient times in every culture throughout the world and has been an integral part of human evolution and development.
The evolution of Philippine traditional medicine is an interesting study that is influenced by religion, mysticism, magic, superstition, folkloric herbalism and western medicine.
Philippine's common traditional medicine practitioners include the following
  • hilot or manghihilot acts as a midwife, a chiropractor or massage therapist to promote health and healing,
  • Tawas or mangtatawas, this practitioner uses alum, candles, smoke, paper, eggs and other mediums to diagnose the cause of illness associated by prayers and incanteations
  • albularyo, a general practitioner who uses a combination of healing modalities that may include prayers, incantations, mysticism and herbalism. Albularyos claim to draw healing powers from a supernatural source (shamanism)
  • Medico, a general practitioner similar to an albularyo but integrates western medicine to promote healing.
  • Faith healers, a practitioner who claims divine power bestowed by the Holy Spirit or God. A patient is required to have faith and believe in divine powers to effect healing
These traditional medical practitioners covers a wide spectrum of practices and differs from one another. Even in this modern times where information and advanced science has greatly progressed, traditional medicine still enjoys a large following most especially in rural areas.

In recognition of the deep seated practice of traditional medicine as an alternative modality for treating and preventing diseases in the Philippines, the Department of Health (DOH) through its former Secretary Juan M. Flavierlaunched the Traditional Medicine Program in 1992. This program aims to promote an effective and safe use of traditional medicine,

Then President Fidel V. Ramos appreciated the importance of the traditional medicine program and signed into law Republic Act 8423 (R.A. 8423), otherwise known as the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997. This gave rise to the creation of Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) which is tasked to promote and advocates the use of traditional and alternative health care modalities through scientific research and product development
Since then the Philippine Department of Health (DOH)through its "Traditioinal Health Program" has endorsed 10 medicinal plants to be used as herbal medicine in Philippines due to its health benefits.
The following are the 10 Medicinal Plants in the Philippinesendorsed by DOH:

  1. Akapulko (Cassia alata) a medicinal plant called "ringworm bush or schrub" and "acapulco" in English, this Philippine herbal medicine is used to treat tinea infections, insect bites, ringworms, eczema, scabies and itchiness.
  2. Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) Common names include "bitter melon " or "bitter gourd " in English. This Philippine herbal medicine has been found to be effective in the treatment of diabetes (diabetes mellitus), hemofrhoids, coughs, burns and scalds, and being studied for anti-cancer properties.
  3. Bawang (Allium sativum) Common name in english is "Garlic". Bawang is a used in Philippine herbal medicine to treat infection with antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-hypertensive properties. It is widely used to reduce cholesterol level in blood.
  4. Bayabas (Psidium guajava) - "Guava" in English. A Philippine herbal medicine used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antioxidant hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, anti-cough, antidiabetic, and antigenotoxic in folkloric medicine.
  5. Lagundi (Vitex negundo) - known as "5-leaved chaste tree" in english is used in Philippine herbal medicine to treat cough, colds and fever. It is also used as a relief for asthma & pharyngitis, rheumatism, dyspepsia, boils, and diarrhea.
  6. Niyog-niyogan (Quisqualis indica L.) - is a vine known as "Chinese honey suckle". This Philippine herbal medicine is used to eliminate intestinal parasites.
  7. Sambong (Blumea balsamifera)- English name: "Ngai camphor or Blumea camphor" is a Philippine herbal medicine used to treat kidney stones, wounds and cuts, rheumatism, anti-diarrhea, anti spasms, colds and coughs and hypertension
  8. Tsaang Gubat (Ehretia microphylla Lam.) - English :"Wild tea" is a Philippine herbal medicine taken as tea to treat skin allergies including eczema, scabies and itchiness wounds in child birth
  9. Ulasimang Bato | Pansit-Pansitan (Peperomia pellucida) is a Phillipine herbal medicine known for its effectivity in treating arthritis and gout.
  10. Yerba Buena (Clinopodium douglasii) - commonly known as Peppermint, is used in Philippine herbal medicine as analgesic to relive body aches and pain due to rheumatism and gout. It is also used to treat coughs, colds and insect bites

Types Of Herbal Medicine

Medicinal plants can be used by anyone, for example as part of a salad, an herbal tea or supplement. Many herbalists, both professional and amateur, often grow or wildcraft their own herbs. Making your own herbal medicine preparation is not only fun, but can be cost-effective. In using the above mentioned herbal medicines, some may require some degree of skill, you have to use your own judgement if you decide to use one. Below is a list of general ways on how to prepare your own herbal medicine. The list is not all inclusive and you have to see individual articles for the herb you use so that you will know how to prepare them.

Herbal Teas

There are two methods of making herbal teas, infusion and decoction. Infusion is steeping lighter parts of the plant (leaves, flowers, light stems) in boiled water for several minutes. Decoction is boiling tougher parts, such as roots or bark for a longer period of time. Herbal teas are often used as a home remedy, and as an alternative to tea and coffee.
As a general rule unless recommended by a herbalist, Prepare 1 teaspoon of dried herb for every 1 cup of water. Let it steep in boiling water for 10 to 20 minutes. Strain the herbs out and drink 3 to 4 times a day.

Herbal Tinctures

Steeping a medicinal plant in alcohol extracts the alcohol-soluble principles into a liquid form that can be stored for long periods. Herbalists may mix several herbal tinctures to form an individualized prescription for each patient. Plant tinctures are also the basis for many homeopathic medicines.
To prepare your herbal tincture you will need:
8 ounces of finely cut dried herbs,
1 large glass jar that can hold 4 cups of liquid
2 cups of vodka
Put the dried herb into a large, glass jar and pour in equal amount of liquid, making sure the herbs are completely covered (this is very important). Store the jar in a cool, dark place for at least two weeks, preferably 4. Make sure to shake the mixture every day. When ready to use, filter the mixture using a cheesecloth bag, coffee filter, or fine cloth, capturing the tincture liquid below in another container. Store the tincture in clean, dark glass containers, out of the sun. If stored properly the tincture will be preserved for two or more years. Vinegar tinctures should be refrigerated.
Note: A drop of tincture is equal to 1 tsp of herb juice.
For Vinegar Tinctures, use 1 ounce of herb per 5 ounces of vinegar.

Fluid Extracts

Fluid extracts are stronger than herbal tinctures, and can be made with alcohol or glycerin.

Herbal Poultices

Poultices are a solid, vegetable fat based mixture used externally. They have the shortest life span of any herbal remedy and must be made fresh for every use.

Powdered Herbs And Tablets

Herbs that are dried and (sometimes) certain parts are separated out then diced to powder fine consistency. Powered matter can then be compressed or put in an empty pill coating to form a tablet

Herbal Creams And Ointments

An ointment usually is mixed with beeswax (or something similar) to make it more applicable to outside the body, such as on a cut or scrape.

Essential Oils

Extraction of volatile liquid plant materials and other aromatic compounds from plants gives essential oils. These plant oils may be used internally in some forms of herbal medicine as well as in aromatherapy and generally for their perfume, although their medicinal use as a natural treatment (alternative medicine) has proved highly efficacious in the treatment of headache and muscle pain, joint pain and certain skin diseases

Herbal Supplements

Herbal supplements tend to be commercial products in tablet or capsule form manufactured and marketed by the health food industry for sale in retail outlets to the general public, although there are some types that are sold only to healthcare practitioners for prescription. Herbal supplements are often standardized to contain stated levels of active phytochemicals. Some herbalists may not agree with the standardization of active ingredients, preferring instead to use the whole plant.